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Systematic classification and distribution
Species: F. francolinus
It is a species with a wide range of distribution, which extends with some interruptions from Cyprus through the Middle East and Central Asia to Bangladesh. Six subspecies are traditionally recognized: F. f. francolinus (Cyprus, Southern Turkey, Israel, Syria, the Caucasus and the Caspian region), F. arabistanicus (Iraq and southwestern Iran), F. bogdanovi (southeast of Iran, southwest of Pakistan, Afghanistan) , F. henrickii (Pakistan and northwest India), F. asiae (Indians and Pakistanis from Kashmir, northern and central India, western Nepal) and F. melanonotus (eastern Nepal, India (West Bengal, Assam, Manipur ) and Bangladesh). The demographic population of the world population of black francolin is to be considered stable. Species uncommon in Europe (apart from the island of cyprus, where it is growing) due to both hunting pressure and habitat loss.
Francolino with black chest - Francolinus francolinus L. (photo Rajiv Lather www.haryana-online.com)
Common Francolin or black-breasted - Francolinus francolinus L. (photo http://oldwww.wii.gov.in)
In the male, the lower part of the body is black, with white streaks on the back and sides. It has a chestnut-red neck, white spots on the cheek and brown wings. The legs are red. The female has an overall brown body, with white streaks; on the back of the neck there is a chestnut-red spot.
This bird is found in arid environments characterized by low vegetation. It builds the nests on the ground, and deposits from 8 to 18 pale white / brownish / greenish spotted eggs. The orientation is varied, and feeds on plants and insects. It has a rapid flight but prefers to move on the ground.
from Emiliano Mori's Master's Thesis Genetic structure of the Black Francolin (Francolinus francolinus, Galliformi) of the Republic of Cyprus and Phylogenetic-molecular analysis of Asian subspecies.