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Classification, origin and diffusion
Species: A. indicates A. Juss., 1830
Synonyms: Melia azadirachta L. -Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb.
Neem (nīm) is a tree native to India and Burma. It is one of the three species of the genus Azadirachta. The other species are Azadirachta siamensis (Val) and Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs. It was introduced to West Africa in the early 20th century to provide shade and prevent the Sahara desert from extending south. Foresters also introduced this tree to Fiji, Mauritius, Saudi Arabia, Central and South America and the Caribbean islands. In the southern United States there are experimental plantations.
Neem - Azadirachta indicates (photo http://obotanicoaprendiznaterradosespantos.blogspot.it)
Neem flowers - Azadirachta indicates
Neem fruits - Azadirachta indicates
The interest on this plant has developed and is still growing following its rapid expansion in many countries and for the numerous applications that are recorded of the numerous derivative products. In particular, several researches have been developed by some of the participants regarding the use of the cake derived from the extraction of seed oil, known as neem cake. It is therefore a secondary product, which in the past was discarded, but now has an increasing commercial interest.Different research is underway: they range from the use for the treatment of the infections contracted by farm animals, including aquaculture, antimicrobial activity up to the treatment for the labio-preservation of fresh meat, the fight against insectivectors of pathogens for humans and animals. The use of natural substances especially of plant origin seems to have an ever wider future use, but it also requires the necessary scientific validations.