Fruit trees: Vine

Fruit trees: Vine

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General (Origin and classification)

Vitis vinifera is also known as the European vine, although more properly it should be defined as Eurasian; the area of ​​origin is not well defined (it was once thought to come from Trancaucasia). It appears in Europe towards the end of the Tertiary, but its use dates back to the Neolithic (in Mediterranean Europe it was grown to produce wine grapes while in Caucasian Europe for the production of table grapes).
Sumerian scriptures dating back to the first half of the third millennium BC they testify that the vine was already then cultivated to produce wine.
It is not certain when viticulture started in Italy: the first evidence in Northern Italy dates back to the 10th century BC. (in Emilia). Widespread in more than 40 countries in the world, although more than half of the world's production occurs in Europe (especially Spain, Italy and France. The many species of vines belong to the Vitaceae or Ampelideae family, genus Vitis, divided into two subgenres:
- Muscadinia;
- Euvitis: the various species are grouped into three groups according to their area of ​​origin: American vines, Eastern Asian vines and Eurasian vines (including a single species, Vitis vinifera).
Vitis vinifera includes two subspecies, V. vinifera silvestris (which includes the wild vines of central and southern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa) and V. vinifera sativa (which includes cultivated vines).
The cultivated vines can be divided into oriental vines (Caspian and anti-Asian vines) and Mediterranean vines (pontic and western vines).

Bunch of table grapes Italy (photo website)

Botanical characters

As regards the roots, depending on whether the plant derives from seed or cutting, we distinguish:
- taproot roots, that is, those originated from the seed and from which derive those of a lower and smaller order;
- adventitious roots, that is, those originating from the cutting, generally near the node; they are of the collated type, of homogeneous development and from which those of a lower order derive.
The stem or stump or trunk has a twisted appearance and is wrapped in the rhytidome which flakes longitudinally. The stem is vertical but can have different inclinations depending on the form of cultivation. The branches are called shoots or vine leaves when they are herbaceous, shoots when they are lignified (shoots when they are detached from the plant after pruning). If they derive from branches of a year they are called cacchi, suckers instead if they derive from old wood. The branches are made up of knots and internodes (or merit them) in variable numbers and lengths.
The leaves of the vine are simple, couplet and alternate. They are formed by a petiole of different length and by a palmate-lobed lamina with five primary ribs that can originate as many lobes separated by inlets called sinuses (leaves with a whole, three-lobed or five-lobed shape). The leaves are also asymmetrical and heterophilic (i.e. on the same branch there are leaves of different shapes). The leaf can be covered with hair.
In the vine they are found only gems which originate from the primary meristem, and can be ready, hibernating or normal and latent buds.
THE cirrus tendrils are fickle support organs; herbaceous during the summer, lignify with the end of the vegetative cycle.
THE flowers of the vine are not single, but united to form an inflorescence, called compound cluster or, better, compound raceme or panicle, inserted on the branch in a position opposite to the leaf.
The lymph flower is made up of a main axis (rachis) on which the racimoli are divided into various orders, the last of which is called the pedicel and bears the flower. The number of flowers per cluster is highly variable (up to 100). The flowers are hermaphrodite, with a calyx with 5 sepals and a corolla of 5 petals; five are also the stamens; lovario is bicarpellar and contains 4 eggs.
Depending on the vitality of the male and female organs, hermaphrodite, stem and pistil-like flowers can be found on the vine.
In addition to these basic types we can have others, of an intermediate type. Bunches can have different shapes depending on the variety.
The fruit of the vine is a berry (grape), consisting of an epicarp or peel, a mesocarp or pulp (soft and juicy tissue) and an endocarp (membranous tissue in which the seeds or grape seeds are contained).
The berries are placed on the pedicels which form, with the ramifications of the bunch, the stalk or graspo. The shape, size, color and flavor vary according to the variety.

Vine flowers (photo Francesco Sodi)

Bunch of grapes (photo Francesco Sodi)

Pedoclimatic needs

The vine has a wide adaptability to the climate and therefore has an immense cultivation area.
In the viticultural environments of southern and insular Italy there is no problem of adequate insolation as this is more than enough for the biological cycle of the vine, typically heliophilous plant, to take place. In the north of Italy, on the other hand, there is a direct correlation between heliophany and sugar content. If solar radiation is able to determine the sugar level or ripeness of the grapes, the temperature influences all the phenological phases of the plant, and can even lead to its death. The European route begins to show damage when it reaches around -15 ° C in winter and -5 ° C in the event of late frost. American lives have a damage threshold at a temperature of around 5 ° C, while the direct producer hybrids and the hybrids Vitis vinifera x Vitis amurensis at -25 ° C and -40 ° C respectively in the case of winter frosts. The damages caused by excess heat only concern the southern and island viticulture and are also related to the windiness and in particular to the presence of the sirocco (wrinkling of the berries and until complete drying).
In areas with low spring-summer rainfall, unoculata water regulation is necessary in order to keep the water that has fallen during the winter in the ground. The vine plant requires different quantities of water available in the different vegetative phases. A low rainfall during the winter induces the vegetative awakening, but the sprouts, after the fruit setting, generally stop growing and the grapes, especially that of the most vigorous vines, do not ripen. More or less similar damage is also caused by the summer drought, as there is no water availability right when the plant is particularly demanding. Equally harmful are excessive rains during the summer or autumn. In the first case the formation of a very aqueous product is determined, with low sugar content and high acid content, while in the second case the attacks of gray mold are particularly favored with harmful consequences on the wine.
The European vine has a wide adaptability to the soil but with the introduction of the rootstocks this characteristic no longer matters. Like the rootstock, so too the soil is able to determine the quality and quantity of the wine production both directly (chemical and physical composition, color) and indirectly in relation to some factors, such as the position, the exposure, etc., which can change the microclimate of that particular environment.

Propagation and rootstocks

In the period between 1858 and 1862, the phylloxera of the vine (Viteus vitifolii (Fitch) (Rincoti, Phylloxerides), an aphid from North America, appeared in Europe, which spread rapidly in all wine-growing areas proving to be harmful to the fine European vines It arrived in Italy in 1879 (in the province of Como and Milan, and in the following year in the province of Caltanissetta and Messina). During its progressive expansion in the Italian peninsula it destroyed two million hectares of vineyards. The roots of the European vine, unlike are sensitive to phylloxera bites. The root tissues undergo severe disorganization, often aggravated by subsequent settlements of pathogenic microorganisms. The plant deteriorates considerably and therefore dies. The problem of phylloxera, very serious for European viticulture, gave rise to the end of the 1800s with the promulgation of a whole series of containment and control measures, which however proved ineffective the. It was solved by grafting the European vine, producer of quality wines, on American grapevine or its hybrids, resistant to phylloxera attacks: this method is still of general application.
The propagation of the vine can be obtained by seed, offshoot (widely used before the advent of Phylloxera), cutting (it no longer has a wide use, also because nurserymen offer rooted and rooted rooted cuttings) and grafting. The latter is certainly the form of propagation par excellence of the vine. It can be carried out with various systems (gem or scion) and with different techniques to encourage aging, but in any case it requires that the starting material is healthy, free of trauma and injury, well mature and which corresponds to the variety and / or clone desired.
The hybrid direct manufacturers (IPD) are those vines that, obtained by hybridization between an American and a European vine, are resistant to phylloxera and able to provide a usable product. The numerous hybrids obtained since the end of the nineteenth century did not however demonstrate adequate resistance to phylloxera and therefore their cultivation took place only after grafting. Therefore, being no longer free of foot, they were named hybrid manufacturers or IP. Furthermore, these hybrids are not always resistant to late blight and alloidium. They also offer a product of a much lower quality than that of Vitis vinifera, which at tasting has a particular flavor, called foxy or volpino, which can be transmitted to the wine. The wine obtained from them also has two serious defects: the limited shelf life (less than a year) and the double content of methyl alcohol compared to that obtained from the European vine. In Italy the area cultivated with these hybrids is very limited (about 1%) unlike France (about 20%). This difference is due to the different legislative prohibitions on their diffusion (the first of 1931). Current legislation prohibits the marketing of musts and wines from vine plants other than Vitis vinifera.
Since the direct producer hybrids did not solve the problem of phylloxera resistance, the genetic improvement work was mainly aimed at the search for numerous pure or hybrid species, natural or induced, to be used as rootstocks. The many rootstocks obtained in over a century of research are attributable to the following groups:
a) selections of pure lines;
b) simple and complex hybrids between American vines;
c) simple and complex hybrids between European and American vines.
Of all these rootstocks, by law, only thirty can be grown in Italy.
In the official nomenclature of rootstocks, the following sequence occurs:
- name corresponding to the seed-bearing species;
- signs (x) or (-) respectively indicating the artificial or natural crossing;
- name corresponding to the pollinating species;
- name of the breeder;
- number, sometimes followed by letters, corresponding to the plot of the experimental field.
The main rootstocks were obtained by crossing Vitis Berlandieri, Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris with each other, or with European vines.
to) Selections of pure lines: pure lines are improperly defined, as they consist of seed plants of dubious origin. Today they are represented by two subjects belonging respectively to Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris; two others, belonging to Vitis Berlandieri, have been excluded from multiplication.
b) simple and complex hybrids between American vines: this group belongs to the majority of hybrids which are allowed to multiply in Italy. Berlandieri x Riparia is the largest group and includes the most used rootstocks both in Italy and abroad; the Berlandieri x Rupestris group is little considered in our country, although in recent years it has been re-evaluated thanks to the notable diffusion in Sicily of 1103 Paulsen and 140 Ruggeri. Of the Riparia x Rupestris group only three are used: 3309 Couderc, 101.14 Millardet and De Grasset and Schwarzmann. The complex hybrids between American vines, in which three or more parents intervene, are not very common and of very limited numbers (the most interesting is Riparia x (Cordifolia-Rupestris) 106.8.
c) simple and complex hybrids between European and American vines: these hybrids have never had a good success due to the limited resistance to phylloxera determined by the European parent.

Genetic improvement

European grape vines have always been subject to improvement, although not always implemented with scientific methods. In practice, a genetic improvement program was implemented by applying the mass selection method, that is, the choice and multiplication of the material considered best. in this way, however, many clonal populations have been obtained which, although originating from an almost uniform population, have undergone a number of variations over time to be considered, today, even as different varieties. A method that is certainly more responsive to the current situation is clonal selection, consisting of taking material to be reproduced from a single plant, in order to create a single clonal population, homogeneous phenotypically and genotypically. There are various improvement programs based on this method with the aim of qualitatively-quantitatively improving the variety, increasing resistance to plant diseases and identifying virus-free clones.
Another method of genetic improvement is self-fertilization, which consists in fertilizing the flower with pollen from the same bunch. Crossbreeding is also widely used: if this system is implemented using varieties belonging to the same species, mixed breeding occurs, if individuals of different species are used, there will be hovering.

Grapes of wine grapes

In the Italian wine-growing context there are more than 300 varieties of wine grapes: some are widespread, others are limited to one or two provinces. Among the many we remember:
- Vines from white grapes: Albana, Bombino Bianco, Catarratto; White Insolia, Malvasie, Moscati, Pinots, Prosecco, Rieslings, Tocai Friulano, Trebbiani, Vernacce;
- Vines from red grapes: Aglianico, Barbera, Cabernets, Canaiolo, Cannonau, Dolcetto, Lambrischi, Marzemino, Melot, Nebbiolo, Pinot Nero, Sangiovese.

Grapes of table grapes

The main table grape varieties are:
- Alphonse Lavaleé: obtained in France in the second half of the 19th century by crossing Bellino x Lady Downes Seedling; excellent table grape spread in many countries. Good resistance to transport and shelf life on the tree; large or very large berry, spherical, with pruinose and consistent skin, very attractive uniform blue-black color, crunchy and juicy pulp, pleasant sweet with simple flavor.
- Baresana: several are the synonyms of this cultivar of very ancient origin and probably of oriental origin: Turchesca, Uva Turca, Uva di Bisceglie, Lattuario bianco, Imperatore, Uva Sacra; excellent and high quality grape even if it does not resist very well to transports to the plant; large or very large berry, spheroid or ovoid, with medium thickness skin, not very consistent and not very pruinose, of a light golden yellow or yellowish yellow color, rather crunchy and juicy pulp with simple flavor.
- Cardinal: obtained in 1939 by E. Suyder and F. Harmon in California from the Flame Tokay x Ribier cross (A.
Lavallée) was introduced to Europe after World War II; it is one of the best early red table grapes. TO
maturation should be harvested immediately as it does not have great resistance on the plant; large, spheroidal berry with medium thickness pruinose skin, not very uniform purplish red color, crunchy pulp, pleasant sweet with a neutral flavor.
- Conegliano 218: obtained from the Experimental Institute for Viticulture, by crossing Italy x Volta (I.P. 105); very similar to the "brother" Conegliano Precoce; appreciated for the earliness and the beautiful appearance of the bunches; grape: medium size, medium weight 6.5 g, round or sub-round, pruinose skin of an intense purplish black color, firm firm pulp, sweet, pleasant with a slightly aromatic taste.
- Early Conegliano: obtained from the Experimental Institute for Viticulture, by crossing Italy x Volta (I.P. 105); it is a very interesting variety for the earliness of ripening and for the beautiful appearance of the bunches; completes its cycle in 90-95 days. It resists cryptogams and rot very well; it keeps well and has a good transport resistance; medium-sized berry, medium weight 5.5 g, round or sub-round, pruinose skin of intense purplish black color, firm firm pulp, sweet, pleasant with a slightly aromatic taste.
- Isabella: direct producer hybrid grape obtained by crossing Vitis vinifera x Vitis Lambrusca; winemaking is prohibited both by current laws and because a wine with a high percentage of methyl alcohol can be obtained; suitable to be planted near the houses to form pergolas, no special treatments are required; also as
table grapes are being rediscovered as an "old grape variety"; small, oval berry, with a large, leathery and slightly pruinose skin, of a purplish black color, firm and juicy flesh, of dark red color with the typical volpine or foxy (strawberry) flavor.
- Italy: obtained by prof. Pirovano in 1911 crossing Bicane x Muscat of Hamburg is among the main table vines worldwide. In France it is called Ideal; it is among the most requested table vines on the market for the beauty of its bunches, for the tasty and crunchy grapes and for the excellent resistance to transport and shelf life; large or very large, ellipsoidal, with medium thickness, firm and pruinose skin, golden yellow or amber color, crunchy and juicy pulp, sweet with a pleasant muscat aroma.
- Matilde: obtained at the Experimental Institute of Fruit Growing in Rome by P. Manzo crossing Italy x Cardinal; grape variety excellent for its earliness and the appearance of the bunch and the grape. It resists transport to the plant very well; large or very large berry (7gr), ovoid, with a fairly thin, consistent skin, of a yellow color, rather crunchy and juicy firm flesh, with a slightly aromatic flavor.
- Michele Palieri: obtained from M. Palieri in Velletri, crossing the Alphanse Lavallée x Red Malaga; good shelf life and resistance to transport; it is finding a good welcome on the markets for the quality characteristics of the bunch as well as for its beautiful appearance; large, oval berry, with medium-thick, firm and pruinose skin, of a purplish black color, crunchy, firm and juicy pulp, sweet.
- Moscato d’Adda: obtained in Vaprio dAdda in 1897 by Luigi Pirovano from Muscat of Hamburg seeds; this cultivar can be considered an improvement of the Muscat of Hamburg with commercial characteristics
qualitatively better; it has good resistance both to transport and to conservation on the plant and in the fruit cellar; medium-large, subsferoidal grape, with a very pruinose thick and consistent skin, with a uniform and intense purplish black color; fleshy, sweet, juicy flesh with a pleasant muscat flavor.
- Muscat of Hamburg: originally from England where it is called the Black of
Alexandria, where it was grown in a greenhouse, first spread to France and later to numerous wine-growing countries; very good in flavor but with commercial characteristics (shelf life, transposed) not fully satisfactory; medium-large grape, slightly ellipsoidal, with a very pruinose skin, rather thin but resistant, with an intense purplish black color; fairly soft, sweet, juicy flesh with a pleasant muscat flavor.
- Moscato di Terracina: known as Moscato di Maccarese, from the name of the main cultivation area, but the origin seems instead to be from the area of ​​Terracina (Latina); the best characteristics are explained in the typical cultivation areas. Sometimes it has too compact clusters that have a low resistance to attacks by cryptogams and transport; dual-purpose grape from which special wines are obtained; medium grape, spheroid, with a thick but not very resistant skin, pruinose, of a golden or amber yellow color, fleshy and juicy pulp, sweet with an intense muscat aroma.
- Noah: direct producer hybrid obtained by crossing Vitis Lambrusca x Vitis riparia; winemaking is prohibited for the same reasons as the Isabella hybrid; lends itself very well to being planted near the houses to form pergolas as, in principle, no treatments are required; small, oval, with a large, leathery and slightly pruinose skin, yellow-green in color, firm and juicy flesh, with the typical volpino or foxy (strawberry) flavor.
- Pearl of Csaba: obtained in 1904 in Hungary from seed of uncertain origin by M. Stark; good gustatory characteristics and its earliness but unsuitable for transport and resistance on the tree, because it is prey to birds and bees; medium-small, spheroidal berry, pruinose, fairly thick, light yellow color and juicy, sweet pulp, with a distinct muscat flavor.
- Pizzutello Bianco: known by numerous synonyms such as Pizzutello di Tivoli, Uva Cornetta, Damasco, etc .; the origin is believed to be Arab, perhaps Syrian, introduced to Europe with the Arab invasions; excellent quality characteristics and very good resistance on the tree; good shelf life and resistance to transport; medium-large grape, characteristically elongated and pointed, pyriform, half-moon curved, slightly pruinose skin, quite thin but resistant, green-yellow or golden-yellow in color, crunchy pulp, with a simple, sweet and very pleasant taste.
- Queen: vine with very ancient origins, probably of oriental origin (Syria), it is cultivated throughout the Mediterranean basin and beyond. In Italy there are numerous synonyms such as Pergolona, ​​Queen of Florence, Menavacca, Imperial Inzolia, Date of negroponte; abroad we find it called: Dattier de Beyrouth in France, Rasaki in the Greek islands, Afuz-Ali in Bulgaria, Aleppo in Romania, Waltam Cross in Australia and South Africa; excellent for taste and for its shelf life and transport characteristics; it represents one of the most widespread vines in the world; large or very large berry, short or long ellipsoidal, with medium thickness, firm and pruinose skin, golden yellow in color, fleshy or crunchy pulp, sweet with simple flavor.
- Queen of the vineyards: also known as Incrocio Mathiasz 140 obtained in 1916 by the Hungarian G. Mathiasz by crossing Queen Elizabeth x Pearl of Csaba; the earliness and quality characteristics of the product are good, so much so that it is among the main vines grown in Italy; it discreetly resists the plant and transport; large or very large, ellipsoidal, with medium thickness, firm and pruinose skin, golden yellow in color, fleshy or crunchy pulp, sweet with very pleasant muscat flavor.
- St. Anna of Leipzig: selection of an old variety (Luglienga) spread almost everywhere; it is a vine of local interest with good gustatory characteristics and for its earliness but unsuitable for transport and resistance on the plant, because it is prey to birds and bees; medium berry, spheroidal, thin and pruinose skin, light yellow or greenish color, juicy, sweet, pleasant pulp.
- White Sultanine: very ancient Dorigine cultivar, it would derive from Anatolia from where it would have spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean basin; it has several synonyms such as Kechmish in Persia, Coufurogo in Greece, Sultana in Australia and Thompson Seedless in the USA which is a widespread selection in California; excellent both for fresh consumption and for the preparation of juices and spirits; it is the grape par excellence destined for withering; medium-small grape, ovoid or ellipsoidal in shape, crunchy pulp, simple flavor, sugary, very pleasant, skin not very pruinose, thin but resistant, golden-yellow or light yellow in color; seedless.
- Victoria: variety selected in Romania by Lepadatu Victoria and Condei Gherghe by crossing Cardina x Afuz Ali; vine very valid for its earliness, productivity, the appearance of the bunch and the grape; it resists transport to the plant well; large or medium-large berry (6.6gr), oblong or elliptical, with high resistance to crushing and detachment, yellow in color and neutral flavor.
- Zibibbo: of uncertain origin, it has been widespread since ancient times along the Mediterranean coasts, it seems that the name derives from the Cape Zibibb in Tunisia or from the Arabic zabeb which means withered; it is known with many synonyms such as Muscat of Alexandria, Moscato di Pantelleria, Salamanna in Tuscany; it is a dual-purpose variety from which the famous passito di Pantelleria and Siciliani are obtained; excellent also to eat fresh; large or very large, ellipsoidal or subsferoidal, with a thick, firm and pruinose skin, of a greenish-yellow or amber-yellow color, crunchy, sweet flesh with an intense and typical muscat flavor.
Other table vines: Schiava, Pause Precoce, Don Mariano, Moscato Giallo, Delizia di Vaprio, Pizzutello Nero.

Grapes of seedless or drying grapes

The cultivation of seedless grapes is not very widespread in Italy, unlike in other countries such as the United States. The grapes intended for drying must have certain characteristics, in particular they must be white, with uniform berries and with a spargo cluster. Among the varieties of this group we remember: Perlette, Flame Seedless, Maria Pirovano, Sultanina Bianca and Ruby Seedless.


The different operations that must be performed after choosing the subject and grape variety according to the various factors are:
- ground leveling;
- more or less deep plowing according to the type of soil;
- fertilization of organic and mineral planting;
- water regulation by open-pit or underground drainage;
- complementary processes for soil refinement;
- squaring and staking;
- planting and first plant care.
To these general operations we can add others such as the correction of acidity, salinity, limestone, etc.
A land in which a vineyard has just been planted should not immediately receive the same crop, due to the so-called phenomenon of soil fatigue. It should be kept at rest and that is cultivated with other plants (grasses or legumes) for a few years (less if sandy).

Forms from breeding

Italian viticulture is characterized by a remarkable variety of soil and climate environments, vines, rootstocks and local traditions that have contributed to the spread of numerous breeding and pruning systems.
The main training systems are: Alberello, Guyot, Capovolto, Spurred cordon, Sylvoz, Trentino pergola, Veronese pergola, Romagna pergola, Marquee, Spoke or Bellussi system, Geneva Double Curtain (GDC), Duplex, Alberate.

Cultivation practices

With regard to production pruning, the operations are divided into: dry or winter pruning and green or summer pruning.
Fertilization is of fundamental importance in the cultivation of the vine. the periodic organic one would be useful, in the form of manure or green manure of legumes; basic is the mineral one based on nitrogen, potassium and phosphatic fertilizers.
As for the soil, this can be kept free by periodic tillage, grassing or grassing in the inter-row and weeding along the row. Linerbimento has several advantages such as: the ease of access of the machines, the reduction of the erosion activity of rainwater, the lack of formation of the working sole, the lower thermal excursions.
In the southern regions, irrigation makes it possible to have a rich viticulture for table grapes and allows a considerable improvement of the wine grapes (lower alcohol content but higher finesse of the wine.
To obtain early production of table grapes we often resort to covering the vineyard or with tunnels or greenhouses in PVC film.

Collection and use

The grape harvest is one of the most expensive operations in the wine budget. In the manual harvest, an operator can collect on average 80-120 kg / h of grapes, depending on the breeding system and operating conditions. The facilitating machines can find an insertion in the cultivation of table grapes while for wine grapes machines for integral mechanical harvesting are required. The grape harvesters can be horizontal or vertical shaking.
Luva can be destined for fresh consumption or for the production of wine, which undoubtedly represent the sectors of greatest importance, or it can be used to obtain:
- clear juices;
- natural syrups to be added to fruit salads;
- products stored in alcohol;
- distillation;
- raisins.
Decoction leaves are used as astringents.

Adversity and pests

Non-parasitic adversity
They are represented by difficult climatic conditions, by alterations due to nutritional and water shortages or excesses, by an incorrect use of pesticides or by air pollutants. The main meteoric adversities are frost, frost and hail. Nutritional deficiencies mainly concern meso and microelements as macroelements are regularly added with ordinary fertilizations. As for the water content of the soil, both an excess and a defect are particularly harmful. even the incorrect use of herbicides and pesticides can cause serious damage both to the production and to the plant, up to the death of the same.
Viros and bacteriosis
the main viroses of the vine are infectious degeneration, enations, curly wood, leaf curling, cortical suberosis and golden flavescence.
The only bacteriosis that can cause damage to the vine is that caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Fungal diseases are certainly those that determine, or can determine, the greatest damage to the vine. A quelle conosciute da molto tempo, come la peronospora, loidio, la botrite, se ne sono aggiunte di nuove, come il mal dellesca, lescoriosi, leutipiosi.
Parassiti animali
Tra gli insetti, ricordiamo: tignola delluva (Eupoecilia =Clysia Ambibuella), tignoletta delluva (Lobesia botrana), cicaline (vari insetti), fillossera (Viteus vitifoliae), alcuni insetti nottuidi sigaraio (Byctiscus betulae).
Tra gli acari: ragno rosso, ragnetto giallo, ragnetto rosso.
I nematodi parassiti della vie sono molti e tutti vivono esclusivamrnte a spese dellapparato radicale e pertanto una loro rapida individuazione risulta impossibile. I generi interessati sono diversi, quali: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Xiphinema e Longidorus.

Video: Grape Vine - Fig Tree - Apple - Blackberry UPDATE trellis fruit trees how to build grow plant (June 2022).


  1. Jujinn

    What is he planning?

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  3. Gasida

    There are also other lacks

  4. Zuran

    It not a joke!

  5. Siddael

    What a sympathetic message

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