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Classification, origin and description
Common name: Coffee tree.
provenance: tropical regions of Africa.
Genre description: includes shrubby species and trees that can reach 3 m. high in the ground.
Seedling of Coffea arabica - Coffee plant (photo website)
Species and varieties
Arabica coffee: native to the mountains of Ethiopia, this species has oval, shiny, dark green leaves with wavy edges, carried by slender and light stems and branches. In the summer it produces axillary clusters of starry white flowers with an intense aroma, followed by scarlet berries containing two coffee beans (hardly in the apartment). In the places of origin it reaches 4-6 m, while in pots it hardly exceeds the meter.
Libyan coffea: native to West Africa, this species has longer glossy leaves than those of the previous species (30 cm instead of 15).
Sturdy coffee: native to Zaire, this species has sharp, waxy and dark green leaves. In summer it produces fragrant white flowers.
Coffea arabica - Coffee plant (Berlin Botanical Garden) (photo website)
Environmental requirements, substrate, fertilizations and special precautions
Temperature: the ideal temperature is 18-20 ° C, but in winter it also tolerates lower values, provided that it is not below 13 ° C.
Light: very good, but protected from direct sunlight, in order to avoid sunburn. In particular, in winter the position must be very bright.
Watering and environmental humidity: water abundantly in summer; reduce the frequency of doses in winter, taking care not to let the earthen bread dry completely. It would be good to use non-calcareous water. The environmental humidity should be raised, especially in summer, with spraying on the foliage.
Substrate: soil based on fibrous garden soil.
Special fertilizations and tricks: it is necessary to choose pots of not too large dimensions, because the plant grows better if the roots are a bit constricted.
Multiplication and pruning
Multiplication: the best method to multiply the coffee plant is to place cuttings of the length in a bowl filled with peat and sand under transparent plastic cover at a temperature of 18-20 ° C at the beginning of summer. 10-15 cm. (which have at least one bud), obtained from the most vigorous shoots. It can also be sown in spring, in a mixture of peat and sand kept humid in a shady position and at a temperature of 27-30 ° C. When the seedlings are born, the container must be moved to a brighter position, taking care to lower both the temperature and the humidity.
Pruning: spring pruning can be used if the plant grows too much or too little.
Diseases, pests and adversities
Leaves that turn yellow and fall: the plant has been subjected to temperature changes.